Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Adolescent medicine is a sub specialty of medicine that focuses on emotional, physical and behavioral care of patients who are in the adolescent period (ages of 11 and 21 years) of development. Adolescent period begins at puberty and lasts until growth has stopped. Adolescent health specialists must complete at least 4 years of medical school and 3 years of residency training in general pediatric, family medicine or internal medicine. These medical doctors provide complete care and treatment on various medical conditions for adolescents and young adults, which include • Substance abuse • Acne • Sports medicine and orthopedic problems • Menstrual disorders • Birth control • Unintended pregnancy • Sexually transmitted disease • Eating disorders • Delayed or precocious puberty • Personality disorders • Anxiety disorders • Depression • Bipolar disorder • Certain types of schizophrenia • Drug addiction, alcohol, and tobacco use control and prevention Popular Adolescent health centres • Adolescent and Young Adult Clinic at Children's Medical Center • Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine Clinic at Fort Sam Houston • Adolescent clinic at Children's Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center • Adolescent Clinic at Children's Mercy Hospital • Adolescent Health at Nationwide Children's Hospital • Adolescent Medicine at Children's Hospital of Richmond • Adolescent Medicine at St. Christopher's Hospital for Children • Adolescent Medicine at Womac Army Medical Center • Adolescent Medicine Clinic at Hospital of Philadelphia • Adolescent Medicine Clinic at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford • Adolescent Medicine Clinic at UCSF • Department of Adolescent Medicine at Seattle Children's Hospital • Division of Adolescent Medicine at Children's Hospital Boston • Division of Adolescent Medicine at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center • Girls to Women Health and Wellness • Royal Prince Alfred Hospital • Teen Health Center at Albert Einstein Medical Center • Teen Health Center at Temple University Children's Medical Center • Teenage and Young Adult Health Center at Children's Hospital Los Angeles • The Adolescent Health Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center • The Adolescent Health Clinic at University of Rochester • The Centre For Adolescent Health Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne • The Children's Hospital at Westmead • Westmead Hospital • Windhaven Adolescent Medicine Clinic at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital • Young Men's Health and Wellness
  • Track 1-1. Infections in pediatrics
  • Track 1-2. Nutrient deficiencies
  • Track 1-3. Pediatric obesity
  • Track 1-4. Child psychology
  • Track 1-5. Genetic disorders
  • Track 1-6. Pediatric behavioral studies, Pain relief therapies and management
  • Track 1-7. Pediatric Sports Injuries
Read More
Child abuse or child maltreatment is a psychological, physical, or sexual maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, mainly by caregiver or a parent. Because of any act or failure to act by caregiver or parent towards their child may result in potential harm to the child health, survival, development or dignity in home, schools or organizations. WHO differentiate child maltreatment into four types? • Physical abuse • Sexual abuse • Emotional and psychological abuse • Neglect
  • Track 2-1. Neonatal jaundice
  • Track 2-2. Neonatal Nutrition
  • Track 2-3. Neonatal Surgical Conditions
  • Track 2-4. Neonatal isoerythrolysis
  • Track 2-5. Neonatal hypoglycemia
  • Track 2-6. Neonatal tetanus
  • Track 2-7. Neonatal conjunctivitis
  • Track 2-8. Neonatal cholestasis
  • Track 2-9. Neonatal bowel obstruction
  • Track 2-10. Infant respiratory distress syndrome
  • Track 2-11. Neonatal Heart Diseases
  • Track 2-12. Neonatal meningitis
  • Track 2-13. Neonatal Mortality Neonatal Nursing
Read More
It is a symptom of pain occurs in the head or neck region. It may be in the forms of migraines, tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. Prolonged severe headache may lead to an increased risk of depression. In general the symptoms and diagnosis process to headache in children is almost similar to that of adults. Approximately 1% children who visits emergency department are for headache. Only 4-7% of kids with a headache have serious effect. The most common type of headaches seen in children is post-traumatic headache, headaches caused by cold, brain abscesses, brain bleeds, meningitis and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction.
  • Track 3-1. Pediatrics Health Care
  • Track 3-2. Pediatrics Critical Care and Emergency Medicine
  • Track 3-3. Pediatric Pain Medicine
  • Track 3-4. Ultrasound Guided Anesthesia for Pediatrics
  • Track 3-5. Pediatric BurnTrauma
  • Track 3-6. Behavioral interventions
Read More
It is a medical sub specialty focuses on diagnosis, prevention and treatment for adverse effects or poisoning due to occupational and environmental toxicants, medications, envenomations and biological agents. Medical toxicologists treat various problems including acute or chronic poisoning, drug overdoses, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), substance abuse, chemical exposures and industrial accidents. Medical toxicology is officially recognized as a sub specialty of medicine by the American Board of Medical Specialties. Medical toxicologists are physicians, whose primary specialization is in occupational medicine, emergency medicine, or pediatrics. Medical Toxicologists work in a variety of settings including: clinical laboratories, forensic laboratories, government agencies, industry and commerce, medical schools, universities, clinical training sites, emergency departments, inpatient units and intensive care units.
  • Track 4-1. Fetal Surgery
  • Track 4-2. Abnormal birth defects
  • Track 4-3. Neuroblastoma
  • Track 4-4. Neonatal psychology and care
  • Track 4-5. Imperforate anus
Read More
Neonatology is a medical subspecialty of pediatrics offer medical care to the newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. Neonatologists focus on the care of newborn infants during neonatal period and offer special medical care to those infants who are ill or low birth weight, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or birth asphyxia. According to special issue of “Modern Healthcare” The average pediatrician salary ranges from $161,000 to $229,000, but the average salary for a neonatologist is about $225,000 to $310,000.
  • Track 5-1. Pediatric Cardiac surgery
  • Track 5-2. Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • Track 5-3. Pediatric Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Track 5-4. Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Track 5-5. Pediatric Surgical Nursing
  • Track 5-6. Pediatric Gynecological Surgery
  • Track 5-7. Pediatric Surgical Oncology
  • Track 5-8. Pediatric Endocrine Surgery
  • Track 5-9. Pediatric Surgical Emergencies
  • Track 5-10. Pediatric Oral surgery
  • Track 5-11. Pediatric Otolaryngology Surgery
Read More
Pediatric Dentistry is a branch of dentistry deals with the oral care and health of children from infancy through adolescence. This sub-specialty was brought into public by American Dental Association, Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons and Royal College of Dentists of Canada. Pediatric dentists must complete 4 years of dental school and 2 additional years training in dentistry for infants, children and teens. Responsibilities of a pediatric dentist include: • To ensure safe and effective oral care is provided • Promoting dental health for children and educating parents • Diagnosing oral diseases • Offering preventive dental care • Interpreting diagnostic tests and x-rays • To ensure the safe administration of anaesthetics • Monitoring teeth and jaws; growth and development • Performing surgical procedures on the teeth • Filing or repairing of decaying teeth • Fixing dental injuries • Repair fractured or displaced teeth • Management of gum diseases and potential risk conditions including ulcers, mucoceles, short frenulae, and pediatric periodontal disease As per the reports of U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, due to increase in baby population by 2024, job growth for pediatrics dentist will increase approximately 20%. The mean salary for a individual pediatric dentists is about $175,000 per year in US.
  • Track 6-1. Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Track 6-2. Myocardial dysfunction
  • Track 6-3. Interventional cardiology
  • Track 6-4. Regenerative cardiac surgery
  • Track 6-5. Neonatal diagnosis and surgery
  • Track 6-6. Congenital heart diseases and pulmonary stenosis
  • Track 6-7. Pediatric cardiovascular surgery and complications
  • Track 6-8. Nursing and care for pediatric cardiac patients
  • Track 6-9. Cardiac therapeutic agents
  • Track 6-10. Syncope- treatment and management
Read More
Pediatric dermatology is a branch of dermatology deals with wide variety of pediatric skin conditions, using latest treatments and procedures. Pediatric dermatologists treat children from birth through adolescence. Pediatric dermatologists must complete the following training programs during their education: • Four years of medical school • One year of internship • Three years of dermatology residency or pediatric residency • Post one year fellowship Pediatric dermatologists provide medical care for the following services: • Medical treatment for skin, nails and hair • Treatment for various skin infections and conditions, including psoriasis, vascular birthmarks, pigmented birthmarks, vitiligo, congenital skin disorders, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, vitiligo, hives, and warts • Minor surgical procedures, including laser treatments, cosmetic surgeries, skin biopsies, and surgical removal of skin lesions
  • Track 7-1. Thyroid disease in children
  • Track 7-2. Neonatal diabetes hyperinsulinism
  • Track 7-3. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management
  • Track 7-4. Use of technology in diabetes management
  • Track 7-5. Disorders of sexual differentiation
  • Track 7-6. Growth disorders
  • Track 7-7. Insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in children
  • Track 7-8. Neonatal diabetes hyperinsulinism
Read More
It’s a medical sub-specialty deal with the diagnosis prevention and treatment of pain in children. In general, the doctor can measure the level of pain by using the following procedures: • Self-reported measures of pain • Behavioral measures of pain • Physiologic measures of pain Medications Used to Treat Pain in Children Pain medications: Acetaminophen and opioids Antidepressants: Antidepressants such as dopamine and serotonin, which affect the neurotransmitters in brain. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA): Children who are 4-6 years old can use with the help of a nurse or parent. Epidural analgesia: Epidural analgesia can be performed during major surgeries such as spinal surgeries, abdominal and lower extremity surgeries for postoperative pain control.
  • Track 8-1. Leukemia
  • Track 8-2. Radiation therapy
  • Track 8-3. Surgery
  • Track 8-4. Chemotherapy
  • Track 8-5. Retinoblastoma
  • Track 8-6. Wilms tumor
  • Track 8-7. Hepatoblastom
  • Track 8-8. Lymphomas
  • Track 8-9. Brain tumors
  • Track 8-10. Immunotherapy
Read More
Pediatric Allergy and immunology is an important subject to be learnt in order to concentrate on factors related to child’s immune system. They promote screening, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a wide array of immune issues including allergies to food, medicines, chemicals and plants, severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis, primary immune deficiencies, and acquired immune disorders) allergy based dermatitis and inherited defects that alter or impair immune response.
  • Track 9-1. Acute Care Imaging
  • Track 9-2. Breast Imaging
  • Track 9-3. Abdominal Imaging
  • Track 9-4. Thoracic Imaging
  • Track 9-5. Pediatric Imaging
  • Track 9-6. Musculoskeletal Imaging
  • Track 9-7. Interventional Radiology
  • Track 9-8. Interventional Neuroradiology
  • Track 9-9. Diagnostic Neuroradiology
  • Track 9-10. Diagnostic Cardiovascular Imaging
  • Track 9-11. Ultrasound
  • Track 9-12. Santa Monica Multi-Specialty Radiology
  • Track 9-13. Cross Sectional Interventional Radiology
Read More
Pediatric cardiologists are medical doctors who completed a 3 year internship in pediatrics, followed by a three-year fellowship in pediatric cardiology. Pediatrics Cardiologists common focus areas include • Advanced imaging practices such as MRI, CT, and ultrasound • Heart catheterization procedures and interventions • Electrophysiology • Heart transplant and Heart failure • Care of children in the cardiac ICU • Adult Congenital Heart Disease Pediatric cardiologists spot, treat, and manage heart problems in children, including congenital heart disease, Arrhythmias, Pulmonary hypertension and Systemic hypertension. Pediatric cardiologists also closely work with allied health care providers; include cardiac anesthesiologists, neonatologists,pediatric heart surgeons, cardiac pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, pediatric radiologists, as well as, nutritionists, and occupational, speech and physical therapists.
  • Track 10-1. Neonatal Nursing
  • Track 10-2. Pediatric Emergency Nursing
  • Track 10-3. Palliative pediatric nursing
  • Track 10-4. Direct nursing care
  • Track 10-5. Infectious Diseases
  • Track 10-6. Surgical Care
  • Track 10-7. Disabled Child Care
Read More
It’s a branch of medicine deals with the diagnosis and management of severe conditions needing sophisticated organ support and invasive monitoring. It is a field of pediatrics with a focus on the extreme care of the critically ill or injured children. Pediatric critical care can be seen in diverse environments and medical specialties such as general intensive care units, trauma intensive care units,surgical intensive care units, cardiothoracic intensive care units, and coronary care units, etc. Pediatric Criticalcare common focus areas include cardiac disease, lung injury, brain injury, and renal replacement therapy.
Read More
Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM): It’s a medical subspecialty of both pediatrics and emergency medicine. It involves the care of children’s acute or critical illnesses and injuries that require abrupt medical attention. Basically emergency physicians practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via intensive care units and emergency medical services and urgent care clinics. Sub disciplines of emergency medicine include medical toxicology, disaster medicine, ultrasonography, hyperbaric medicine, critical care medicine, palliative care, sports medicine, or aerospace medicine. Yearly pediatric emergency physicians in the U.S. make an average of $273,683.
  • Track 12-1. Childhood cirrhosis
  • Track 12-2. Feeding disorders
  • Track 12-3. Obesity and autism
  • Track 12-4. Allergic GI disorders
  • Track 12-5. Pediatric endoscopy and imaging
  • Track 12-6. Complex gastrointestinal surgery risk factors
Read More
Its medical sub-specialty deals with endocrine disorders. The most common diseases dealt by the Pediatric endocrinologists are type 1 diabetes, growth disorders and sexual development in children. These primary physicians majorly involved in the medical care of infants and children with intersex disorders, hypoglycemia, bone metabolism, variations of puberty, adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary gland problems, lipid metabolism, adolescent gynecology, or inborn errors of metabolism. Pediatric Endocrinologists are medical doctors who completed a 3 years fellowship following completion of a 3 year pediatrics residency.
  • Track 13-1. Pediatric anxiety and tic disorders
  • Track 13-2. ADHD and learning disabilities
  • Track 13-3. School problems and relationship problems
  • Track 13-4. Behavioral and developmental disorders
  • Track 13-5. Psychopharmacology and medication management
  • Track 13-6. Consultation and evaluations for diagnosis and treatment
  • Track 13-7. Life-long implications of pediatric mood, emotional and behavioral changes
Read More
Pediatric gastroenterology is a sub-specialty of both pediatrics and gastroenterology. Pediatric Gastroenterologists treat the diseases of gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas of children from infancy until age of adolescent. The major diseases it is concerned with are persistent vomiting, acute diarrhea, gastritis, and problems with the development of the gastric tract. Globally, each of the 140 million children born yearly experience diarrhea in the first 5 years of life.
  • Track 14-1. Pregnancy Nutrition
  • Track 14-2. Pediatric Nutrition in Chronic Diseases
  • Track 14-3. Clinical Nutrition
  • Track 14-4. Food Allergies in Pediatrics
  • Track 14-5. Nutrition and Health
  • Track 14-6. Pediatric Malnutrition Effects
Read More
It deals with the health of the vagina, uterus, vulva, and ovaries of infants, children, and adolescents. Observed that there are various common pediatric gynecologic conditions such as Hernias, Intersex conditions, Amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period), Abnormal vaginal bleeding, Vulvovaginitis (pathogenic infection), Vulvitis (inflammation of the vulva), Breast abnormalities, Contraception, Pregnancy, Precocious puberty (changes indicative of puberty, including pubic hair, development of breast buds, and a growth spurt), Labial adhesion, Ovarian mass (30–70% of neonates with ovaries have cysts, Ovarian masses in children are typically cystic, but 1% are malignant ovarian cancers). Common pediatric gynecologic complaints include pre-menarche bleeding, vaginal discharge, accounts of sexual abuse and itching.
  • Track 15-1. Correction of bone fractures
  • Track 15-2. Spine surgery
  • Track 15-3. Open-knee surgery
  • Track 15-4. Hand surgery
  • Track 15-5. Foot and ankle surgery
  • Track 15-6. Shoulder and elbow surgery
  • Track 15-7. Total joint reconstruction arthroplasty
  • Track 15-8. Pediatric orthopaedic trauma and oncology
  • Track 15-9. Musculoskeletal tumour surgery
Read More
Pediatric hematology is a combination of both pediatrics and hematology. It deals with therapeutic study, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of various types of blood disorders in children. A medical practitioner specialized in this field of pediatric hematology is called pediatric hematologist, majorly concerned with the disorders of leukocytes, erythrocytes, vascular biology, immunology both benign and malignant, platelets, hemostatic mechanisms, hematologic oncology, anemia and lymphoma, etc.
  • Track 16-1. Tissue transplantation
  • Track 16-2. Liver Transplantation
  • Track 16-3. Kidney transplantation
  • Track 16-4. Bone marrow transplantation
  • Track 16-5. Lung transplantation
  • Track 16-6. Types of transplantation
Read More
Pediatric infectious diseases are the illnesses in children caused by bacteria, fungi and virus. Some of the pediatric infectious diseases include bone infections, bacterial infections, viral infections, joint infections and skin infections.
  • Track 17-1. Head and neck reconstruction
  • Track 17-2. Craniofacial surgery
  • Track 17-3. Cosmetic facial surgery
  • Track 17-4. Scalp surgery
  • Track 17-5. Benign and malignant tumors of the head and neck Surgery
Read More
Pediatric Nephrology is a combination of both Pediatrics and Nephrology. Pediatric Nephrology deals with the diagnosis and management of kidney related complications such as urinary tract infections, acute and chronic renal failure, bowel bladder dysfunction, congenital renal anomalies, nephrotic syndrome, tubular disorders, chronic glomerulonephritis, and systemic severe and progressive renal disorders. Pediatric Nephrologists treat children from new born through late adolescence and in youthful adulthood too with numerous infections such as following. • Dialysis • Kidney biopsies • Kidney transplantation • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring Pediatric nephrologists consists a team of specialized nurses, nutritionists, and social workers, all committed to the care of children effected with kidney diseases. They closely work with other physicians such as pediatric urologists, pediatric radiologists and pediatric surgeons.
  • Track 18-1. Sinusitis
  • Track 18-2. Abscesses
  • Track 18-3. Eczema
  • Track 18-4. Diarrhea
  • Track 18-5. Sneezing
  • Track 18-6. Congestion
  • Track 18-7. Hay fever
Read More
Pediatric Neurology mots popularly known as Child neurology refers to a subspecialty of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of neurological conditions in neonates, infants, children, adolescents and young adults. Pediatric neurology concerned with the analysis and management of problems as well as treats all kinds of diseases and disorders of spinal cord, brain, cns, autonomic nervous system muscles and blood vessels that may affect individuals. Generally, about 40% to 50% of the patients treated in a typical pediatric neurology settings have epilepsy, while 20% are suffering from headaches and 20% have learning difficulties or developmental problems.
  • Track 19-1. Hepatitis B vaccine HepB
  • Track 19-2. Meningococcal and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • Track 19-3. HBV vaccine
  • Track 19-4. Varicella vaccine
  • Track 19-5. Hib vaccine
  • Track 19-6. MMR vaccine
  • Track 19-7. IPV vaccine
  • Track 19-8. Flu vaccine
  • Track 19-9. Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine DTaP
  • Track 19-10. Rotavirus vaccine RV
  • Track 19-11. HPV vaccine
Read More
Pediatric nursing is the medical care of neonates and infants up to adolescents, for the most part in a day-clinic orin an in-patient hospital. Pediatric Nurses perform physicals check-ups, child immunizations, screening Diagnosis and treatment of illnesses, recommending medications, regulate the life of the child in the family, school and community. The Pediatric Intensive Care provides care for infants, children and adolescents who become critically ill or injured which include the conditions like Severe infection , Poisoning, Drug overdose, Trauma, Extensive surgery, Congenital abnormalities, Immunological disorders. Neonatal nursing is a branch of human services that focus in giving support to new born premature babies, or experiencing medical issues, such as birth defects, diseases, or heart deformities. Numerous neonatal nurses work in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), giving exceedingly specific medicinal care to the new-borns in risk.
Read More
Breast milk offers the best nutrition during these first months of growth when compared to other foods. Breastmilk helps in preventing anemia, obesity, diabetes and sudden infant death syndrome; and it promotes immunity, digestive health and intelligence. Breastfeeding is hardly contraindicated, but it is not suggested for mothers being treated for tuberculosis, cancer, substance abuse, HIV and leukemia. Proper infant nutrition demands essential substances (minerals, vitamins, proteins or fluids) that support organs growth, development, function and resistance to infections and diseases. Infants must breastfeed for first six months of life to attain all necessary developments and growth. So to fulfill all the nutritional requirements infant must receive sufficient adequate nutrition and digestible foods, continuing to breastfeeding up to 2 years or more.
Read More
Pediatric oncology is the branch of medicine deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children. Globally, it is estimated that childhood cancer has a mortality rate of about 96,000 per year out of more than 175,000 effected children. In developed countries, childhood cancer has a mortality of approximately 20% of cases and it is 80-90% in the underdeveloped countries. The most common cancers in children are brain tumors (18%), leukemia (32%), and lymphomas (11%). Other, less common childhood cancers are • Neuroblastoma (6%) • Wilms tumor (5%) • Retinoblastoma (3%) • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4%) • Germ cell tumors (5%) • Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (3%) • Osteosarcoma (3%) • Ewing sarcoma (1%) • Pleuropulmonaryblastoma (lung or pleural cavity) • Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma Global Organizations those focused on childhood cancer and/or support programs include: • Childhood Cancer Canada • CLIC Sargent and the Children's Cancer • Leukaemia Group (United Kingdom) • Child Cancer Foundation (New Zealand) • Children's Cancer Recovery Foundation (United States) • American Childhood Cancer Organization(United states) • Childhood Cancer Support (Australia) • The Hayim Association (in Israel)
Read More
Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology deals with the diseases of eye, vision care and development in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are the physicians who must complete • At least 4 years of medical school • 1-year internship • 3-year residency in ophthalmology • And 1-2 year post fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified in managing various eye problems, performing critical eye surgeries and suggesting eyeglasses and contact lenses to the children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are specifically trained to handle various eye disorders, such as eye infections; conjunctivitis, strabismus, amblyopia, ptosis, blocked tear ducts, nystagmus, retinopathy of prematurity, pediatric cataracts, visual inattention, abnormal vision development, pediatric glaucoma, orbital tumours, genetic disorders, congenital malformations, refractive errors (myopia , hyperopia and astigmatism), accommodative insufficiency, convergence insufficiency, asthenopia, dyslexia and attention deficit disorder.
Read More
Pediatric pulmonology is a medical subspecialty involved in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract diseases. Pediatric pulmonology is a blend of both pediatrics and pulmonology. Pediatric pulmonologists are specifically trained in disease conditions of the chest, asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, tuberculosis and other complex chest infections. Pulmonology is popularly known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonologists perform both scientific and clinical research of the respiratory system; it varies from the composition of the respiratory epithelium to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Moreover scientific research takes place to identify the causes and probable treatment procedures in severe disease conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Pediatric pulmonologists often perform the following laboratory and surgical procedures. • Laboratory investigation of blood • Spirometry • Pulmonary Function Tests spirometry • Chest X-rays • CT scanning • Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) • Scintigraphy and other methods of nuclear medicine • Positron emission tomography • Sleep apnea
Read More
Diagnosis of illnesses, injuries, and diseases of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults by using imaging techniques and equipment (artificial Windows / light panels and positioning equipment such as sponges, weights) is called pediatric radiology. Pediatric radiologists must complete • A degree from a medical school • 1 year or more of clinical medicine training • 4 years of training in diagnostic radiology • 2 additional years of training in the diagnosis of infants and children using imaging equipment. • Pediatric radiologists must have additional certification from American Board of Radiology Pediatric radiologists are highly qualified to choose best imaging techniques such as x-ray, NMR, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT), to treat various medical and surgical problems in children.
Read More
Pediatric Rheumatology is a medical subspecialty deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Specialized physicians in pediatric rheumatology are called as pediatric rheumatologist’s deals with clinical problems involve autoimmune diseases, joints, soft tissues, vasculitis, and heritable connective tissue disorders in child, infant and adolescent.
Read More
Surgeons who perform surgeries on infants, children, and adolescents are called Pediatric Surgeons. Neonatal surgery and fetal surgery are the sub specialties of pediatric surgery. Pediatric surgeons are the medical doctors who must complete the following training programs during their education: • At least 4 years of medical school • Five additional years of general surgery • Post two additional years of residency training in pediatric surgery • Certification by the American Board of Surgery Major pediatric surgeries include • Pediatric oncological surgery • Pediatric cardiothoracic surgery: heart and lung transplantation in children • Pediatric nephrological surgery: kidneys and ureters surgeries in children • Pediatric neurosurgery: surgeries on brain, central nervous system, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves of children • Pediatric urological surgery: surgery involving urinary bladder and other structures below the kidney of children • Pediatric emergency surgery: fetuses or embryos surgeries in children • Pediatric hepatological and gastrointestinal surgery: surgeries involving liver and intestinal transplantation in children • Pediatric orthopedic surgery: surgeries on muscle and bone in children • Pediatric plastic and reconstructive surgery Common diseases in children that may require pediatric surgery include: • Childhood tumors • Congenital malformations • Chest wall deformities • Separation of conjoined twins • Abdominal wall defects
Read More
Pediatric urology is a medical subspecialty concerned with the disorders of children's genitals or urinary tract. Pediatric urologists offer care for both boys and girls from infants, to adolescents. Pediatric urologists are medical doctors who must complete • At least 4 years of medical school • 1 to 2 years of surgical residency • At least 4 additional years of residency in general urology • 1 to 3 years of additional fellowship training in pediatric urology Pediatric Urologists treat various conditions and disorders associated with reproductive organs and testes, which include bladder control problems, undescended testes, hypospadias, epispadias, chordee, bladder and kidney stones, minor malformations of the penis, phimosis, antenatal hydronephrosis, neurogenic bladder, urinary obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux, kidney cancers, repair of genitourinary trauma, birth defects and genitourinary malformations.
Read More
A therapeutic and surgical speciality concerned about the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders, illnesses and diseases or disarranges of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) and related structures of head and neck, including the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat) in children comes under Otolaryngology normally called ENT. If the child needs surgical or complex medicinal treatment for sicknesses or issues affecting the ear, nose, or throat, a Pediatric otolaryngologists has the experience and capabilities to treat.
Read More
Pediatrics Primary Care Physiciansprovide care to the infants, children and adolescents including well child care, monitoring physical and psychosocial growth and development,diagnosis, prevention and treatment of common pediatric acute and chronic disorders.
Read More
Maternal–fetal medicine (MFM) also called as perinatology is a branch of medicine that involved in managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Maternal–fetal medicine specialists are physicians specialized in the field of obstetrics; they may do prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries.
Read More
Physical medicine and rehabilitation (known as physiatry), is a medical subspecialty that intend to increase and reinstate functional ability and optimization of quality of life to those with physical disabilities or impairments. A physician who has completed training in this field called as a physiatrist. Pediatric physiatrists are responsible in the medical management and rehabilitation care of children with spinal cord injuries, pain syndromes, muscle injuries, bone injuries, ligaments, non-healing wounds, neuromuscular disorders, brain injuries, and musculoskeletal conditions. In treating these patients, physiatrists lead a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapist, nurses, neurologists and neurosurgeons, psychologists, orthopaedic surgeons, nutritionists, and social workers. Some of the common conditions pediatric physiatrists treat are: Cerebral palsy, neuromuscular disorders, spina bifida, spinal cord injuries, acquired brain injuries, limb deficiencies, gait abnormalities, musculoskeletal conditions and brachial plexus palsy.
Read More
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty involved in the diagnosis, management and therapy of sleep disorders and disturbances.
Read More
Social pediatrics describe the child health or illness, within their society, school, environment, and family
Read More
Sports medicine is a medical subspecialty concerned with physical exercise and the prevention and treatment of injuries associated with sports. Physicians are specialist medical doctors those who completed medical school, appropriate residency training with primary specialization in sports medicine or 'sports and exercise medicine. Some of the sports medicine organizations include • American College of Sports Medicine • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine • American Medical Society for Sports Medicine • National Athletic Trainers' Association • Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association • American Medical Association • International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Sports Medicine • International Association for Dance Medicine and Science • British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine
Read More